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AXIS & ALLIES Advanced Rules

Winston C. Lee

Revision 1.6 - 9 September 2001


Introduction and Overview


This book of advanced rules is a compilation of what I think are the best Axis and Allies rules variations I have encountered. These variations include ideas from IAAPA’s David (Starchild)’s Cut-Throat Rules, R. D. Baker’s Enhanced Rules, Avalon Hill’s Axis and Allies: Europe and Pacific rules, and many of my own.

These rules add realism yet try to maintain the flavor of the original game, that is, an easy game to play, which is fast moving and balanced. Players have the option of including only some of these rules. However many of these variations are best used in conjunction with others.

Clarifications to the map restrict movement through canals, straits, the Sahara Desert, and the Himalayas. More Industrial Complexes have been added, along with naval fighters, US Marines, destroyers, and artillery. Bidding determines who plays the Axis and aids play balance.

The country turn order has been modified so that the US and UK take their turns together, thus enabling an adequate US defense at Midway, Pearl Harbor, and China and allowing a combined ""D-Day"" invasion of France. Industrial Production (IP) is determined at the beginning of the player turn. Convoy raiders can reduce the IP totals of the UK, US, or Japan. The US does not collect IP for China; rather, China is a separate entity that builds infantry independent of the US. The game begins with the Russo-Japan Non-Aggression Pact in force, but under the proper conditions, either country may declare war on the other. Neutrals now have forces and an IP value.

Advanced weapons are acquired by spending IP to develop a specific technology. A new set of advanced weapons is available, all of which require additional IP to purchase. Damaged battleships may be repaired. Also, several units have modified attack, defense, and movement capabilities. Industrial Complexes cannot produce unlimited numbers and types of units, but are limited by their Industrial Capacity.

The Combat and Movement Action Sequence has been partitioned into distinct Naval and Ground parts that add air and naval interception, fighter escorts, coastal defense, and strategic air defense. Naval units can move through and remain in enemy-occupied sea zones, transports can only load from one territory and unload to one territory, transport capacity to friendly territories is increased to three ground units, destroyer’s provide anti-submarine defense, artillery have a infantry support capability, the attacker may select combat losses, combat losses have a priority based on unit type, and both attacking and defending units may retreat.

Rail movement and base changes enable the redeployment of ground, air, and naval units. Fighters and carriers can be placed together when built.

Historical rules have been added for China and Lend Lease, and to portray the historical relationships between the Axis and Allied partners.

A 1941 variant has been included, and a section has been added to enable the use of the Advanced Rules with Axis and Allies: Europe and Pacific.

1 The 5-Part Action Sequence What to Do On a Turn


Each complete turn consists of a player taking a turn for each of 5 countries in the following order. The UK and US take their turns together, but purchase and place their units separately.

  • USSR
  • Germany
  • United Kingdom/US
  • Japan

Each player’s turn consists of 5 Action Sequences, as follows.

  • Determine Industrial Production Total
  • Spend Industrial Production
  • Movement and Combat
  • Rail Movement and Base Changes
  • Place New Units
  • Victory Conditions

The game ends when either the Axis or the Allies surrender. The Axis must surrender when both Germany and Japan are defeated. The Allies must surrender when any two of the USSR, UK, or US are defeated. The Allies also must surrender when the IP total of Axis-controlled territory equals 84 or more at the end of the UK/US turn.

Action 1: Determine Industrial Production total

A player adds up the Industrial Production (IP) value of his country’s territories and remaining IP from the previous turn. A player subtracts losses from the previous turn’s strategic bombing and rocket attacks and the current turn’s convoy raider losses. This is a player's IP total. A country may declare war on neutral countries. Either Russia or Japan may attempt to declare war on each other.

Action 2: Spend Industrial production

Industrial Capacity limits the units that an IC may produce. IP may be spent for the following, in the order shown:

A. Repair Damaged Battleships

B. Purchase New Units

C. Develop Advanced Weapons

Action 3: movement and combat

This Action Sequence is composed of the following parts. Step-by-step details are provided on the next page.

A. Naval Movement

B. Naval Combat

C. Ground Movement

D. Ground Combat

E. Returning Air Movement

Action 4: Rail Movement and base changes

Up to 15 IP worth of ground units may be moved by rail up to TWO territories. Air and naval units may move to a new air or naval base.

Action 5: Place New Units

Each territory with an Industrial Complex (IC) has an Industrial Capacity that limits the types and numbers of each type of unit that may be built. Fighters may be placed directly on carriers. New units may NOT be placed on an IC captured in the current turn.


MOVEMENT AND COMBAT DETAILS

A. Naval Movement

  • Load transports with ground units.
  • Move naval units and their fighter escorts.
  • Defending naval units may intercept naval units leaving their sea zone.
  • Move air units attacking naval units, and their fighter escorts.
  • Defending air units may intercept and AA guns may fire at air units leaving their airspace.

B. Naval Combat

Defending naval units may conduct combat against enemy naval units ending their movement in the defending naval units’ sea zone (including amphibious assaults). Defending air units in adjacent territories may provide coastal defense for friendly naval units. Submarines may have a first-shot ""surprise attack"" on each round of naval combat. Roll for Naval Combat. At the end of each round, first the attacker then the defender has the option to retreat. Coastal defense air units return to their bases. C. Ground Movement

Move ground units one territory. Unload ground units from transports. Move strategic bombers, air units attacking territories, and their fighter escorts. Defending air units may intercept and AA guns may fire at air units leaving their airspace. D. Ground Combat

Defending fighters and artillery may provide strategic air defense against strategic bombing. Roll for strategic bombing and rocket attacks. Battleships and destroyers may ""shore bombard"" defending units with a one shot attack and provide infantry support in amphibious assaults. AA guns may fire at attacking air units. Roll for Ground Combat. At the end of each round, first the attacker then the defender has the option to retreat. E. Returning Air Movement

All attacking air units return to their original territory or carrier. Returning air units are NOT subject to interception by defending air units or fire from enemy AA guns.


2

Game Setup



Map Clarifications

Top/Bottom Edge

The territories and sea zones on the top and bottom edges of the map are NOT adjacent.

Western Canada

Western Canada is NOT adjacent to the Eastern Canada sea zone.

Egypt

A player's naval units can traverse through the Suez Canal only if he controls Egypt.

Panama Canal

The Panama Canal is treated similarly to the Suez Canal in Egypt. The Panama Canal is not a sea zone. No naval units can be located ""in"" the Canal. For naval and air movement purposes, the West Panama sea zone and the East Panama sea zone are considered adjacent. A player's naval units can traverse through the Panama Canal only if he controls Panama.

Turkey/Black Sea

Turkey is adjacent to Eastern Europe. Thus, Turkey can be attacked from Eastern Europe by land (no transports are required). A player's naval units cannot enter or exit the Black Sea from the Mediterranean unless he controls Turkey.

Baltic Sea

A player's naval units cannot enter or exit the Baltic Sea Zone from the North Atlantic Sea Zone unless he controls Western Europe. Finland/Norway is NOT adjacent to Western Europe.

Gibraltar

A player's naval units cannot move between the West Mediterranean Sea Zone and the West Spain Sea Zone unless he controls Gibraltar. Gibraltar is NOT adjacent to Algeria. The West Spain Sea Zone is adjusted so that it is adjacent to Gibraltar.

Western Gulf of Mexico

The small Western Gulf of Mexico sea zone located at the right side of the board is NOT a legal location to place new units from the Western US. This sea zone is adjacent to Mexico, the Western US, the Eastern US sea zone, and the West Indies sea zone.

Himalayas

The Himalayas are an impassable mountain range. Thus, ground movement is not allowed (but air movement IS allowed) between Sinkiang and both of India and French Indo-China/Burma.

Sahara Desert

The Sahara Desert is an impassable region. Thus, ground movement is not allowed (but air movement IS allowed) between French Equatorial Africa and both of Algeria and Libya.

Baltic States

The Baltic States are a separate territory worth 1 IP, and Eastern Europe is reduced to 2 IP.

Hawaii

The IC in Hawaii does not represent the presence of heavy industry, but instead enables the realistic ability for the US to quickly deploy forces to Hawaii.

Advanced Unit Setup

The starting unit setup and IP are shown in the following tables.

Abbreviations:

IN Infantry F Fighter BB Battleship

AT Artillery NF Naval Fighter CV Aircraft Carrier

TA Armor (Tank) B Bomber DD Destroyer

AA Anti-Aircraft Gun TR Transport

IC Industrial Complex SS Submarine

(Note some of the setup may have been garbled and be in the wrong columns)

RUSSIA - Starting IP: 24 IP

Territory/SZINATTAAAICFBNFBBCVDDTRSS
Russia412111
Karelia31111111
Caucasus511
Evenki2
Yakut3
Soviet FE211

GERMANY - Starting IP: 32 IP (plus 3 IP for neutrals)

Territory/SZINATTAAAICFBNFBBCVDDTRSS
Germany412111112
South Europe21111111
West Europe21211
EastEurope1
Baltic States2111
Finland/Nor.3111
Ukraine3121
Algeria1
Libya11
Mid-Atlantic 2
Western Spain 2


GREAT BRITAIN - Starting IP: 30 IP

Territory/SZINATTAAAICFBNFBBCVDDTRSS
Great Britain2111121111
East Canada11111
West Canada1
Egypt-Sudan11111
South Africa1
Syria-Iraq1
India2111111
Australia2111
Gibraltar1

UNITED STATES - Starting IP: 32 IP

Territory/SZINATTAAAICFBNFBBCVDDTRSS
East U.S.211111111
West U.S.2111111
Alaska1
Hawaii11211
Midway Island1
China21
Sinkiang2


JAPAN - Starting IP: 25 IP

Territory/SZINATTAAAICFBNFBBCVDDTRSS
Japan3111111111
Manchuria311
Kwangtung21
Indo-China211
Wake1
Okinawa1
East Indies1
Borneo-Celebes1
Philippines2111
New Guinea1
Caroline Islands1211
Solomon Islands11


Bidding

Bidding determines who plays the Axis and the Allies and also aids play balance. The bidding procedure follows.

Each player secretly enters a bid for Germany. The lower bid plays the Axis powers with the benefits of the winning bid placed on the board during the game setup. For multi-player games, the lowest bid plays Germany, and the second lowest bid plays Japan. Bids are compared by IP value and may consist of extra units (land, air, or sea) and/or additional IP for Germany. Bids may not consist of advanced weapons development. Land units may be placed in any territory controlled by Germany. Naval units may be placed in any sea zone currently occupied by German units. Negative value bids are allowed (removing German units and/or IP) but may not be combined with the addition of units or IP. Tying bids are resolved by die roll. Example:

Player 1 bids 16 IP (five extra German infantry in Ukraine and 1 IP). Player 2 bids 19 IP (2 subs in Western Spain and 1 infantry in Ukraine). Player one will play the Axis with five additional German infantry in Ukraine and a starting IP total of 36.


3

Action Sequence 1

Determine Industrial Production Total

A player adds up the value of his territories at the beginning of his turn, plus remaining IP from the previous turn. From this, a player subtracts losses from the previous turn’s strategic bombing and rocket attacks. Also a player subtracts losses from the current turn’s convoy raider losses. This is a player's IP total.

A territory with an IC CAN lose more IP due to strategic bombing and rocket attacks than its territory value. Bombing and rocket losses can be tracked by placing chips under the affected IC, indicating the number of IP to be subtracted from the total collected in the next turn. If a territory with an IC is captured, bombing and rocket losses are removed.

Convoy Raiders

For each German naval unit (but NOT transports or withdrawn units) in a sea zone in the Atlantic Ocean (but NOT the Mediterranean, Baltic, or Black Seas), 1 IP is subtracted from both the UK and the US IP totals. Also, the UK, the US, or Japan loses the IP from islands they control if enemy naval units (but NOT transports or withdrawn units) are in the sea zone surrounding the island.

China

Neither the US or UK collect IP from any of the territories of Greater China (China, Sinkiang, Manchuria, and Kwangtung), UNLESS Greater China has first been defeated. See the Greater China rules under Section 8: History and Politics.

Neutral Aid

Germany gets 1 IP at the beginning of his turn for each of Sweden, Switzerland, and Spain, as long as these neutral countries are surrounded exclusively by Axis-controlled territory. Gibraltar does not count against Spain.

Russo-Japan Non-Aggression Pact

Russia and Japan are not at war when the game begins. Each country may only attack each other by first ending the pact and declaring war. The USSR or Japanese player rolls one die. The die roll is subtracted from the rolling player’s current PRINTED territory value; if the adjusted number is greater than the current PRINTED territory value of the enemy player, then war is declared! Otherwise, it is no effect.

Neutrals

Neutral countries are inactive until war is declared on them. Once a country declares war on a neutral, the country may attack and enter the airspace of the neutral country. There is no IP penalty. Place 3 infantry units from the opposing player whose capital is closest to the neutral country. However, Spain or Turkey receive the following units:

3 infantry, 1 artillery, 1 armor, 1 fighter, 1 destroyer, and 1 IC.

The opposing player controls undefeated neutral countries and also receives their IP value. All neutrals have an IP value of ONE when they are controlled or conquered by a major power, except Spain and Turkey, which have a value of THREE.


4

Action Sequence 2

Spend Industrial Production


IP may be spent for the following, in the order shown. Unexpended IP are saved for the next turn.

A. Repair Damaged Battleships

B. Purchase New Units

C. Develop Advanced Weapons

INDUSTRIAL CAPACITY

An IC’s Industrial Capacity limits the number of units of each type that an IC may produce. The Industrial Capacity is 30 for all major capital territories (Russia, Germany, Eastern US, Japan, UK) plus the Western US and Southern Europe (Italy). All other ICs (in the USSR, the UK Commonwealth allies, Spain, and Turkey) have an Industrial Capacity of 12. Captured ICs all have an Industrial Capacity of 6.

Industrial capacity applies only to the construction of NEW units; Industrial Capacity does not limit the repair of battleships.

The four types of units are:

  • Type 1: Infantry, US Marines
  • Type 2: Armor, Artillery, AA guns, Heavy Armor, Heavy Artillery, Rocket Launchers
  • Type 3: Air (Fighters, Naval Fighters, Bombers, Jet Fighters, Heavy Bombers)
  • Type 4: Naval (Battleships, Carriers, Destroyers, Submarines, Transports, Super Submarines)

INDUSTRIAL CAPACITY EXAMPLES

Russia, Germany, Southern Europe, Eastern US, Western US, Japan, UK

These territories each have an Industrial Capacity of 30. No more than 30 IP may be spent on each TYPE of unit to be placed in one of these territories. For instance, Russia may build up to 10 Infantry (30 IP), 6 Armor (30 IP), and 2 bombers (30 IP) in one turn, provided enough IP is available. Additional Type 1, 2, and 3 units could NOT be built, because this would exceed the Industrial Capacity of 30.

Karelia, Caucasus, Eastern Canada, India, Australia, Spain, and Turkey

These territories each have an Industrial Capacity of 12. Bombers, carriers, and battleships may NOT be built at these ICs, because these each cost more than 12 IP.

REPAIR DAMAGED BATTLESHIPS

Battleships are powerful units. While all other units take only one hit, battleships take 2. When hit the first time, the battleship’s attack and defense die roll drops to 3. A damaged battleship may be repaired if it is in a sea zone adjacent to a territory with an IC controlled by its country. The repair costs 5 IP + the roll of 1 die. The battleship may not move or participate in combat during the turn of repair. The repair is complete at the end of the player’s turn.

PURCHASE NEW UNITS

Following is a brief description of the game units. The table at the end of this section provides additional details.

Industrial Complexes

No new ICs may be built. ICs may not be destroyed, but they may be captured.

Ground Units

All ground units may be moved by rail.

Infantry

Infantry are the standard ground unit. Infantry’s attack is improved by the presence of attacking artillery.

US Marines

US Marines are a special type of infantry that only the US player may purchase. Marines cost 4 IP and function like infantry, except that on amphibious assaults, they attack on a die roll of TWO or less. With artillery support on amphibious assaults, Marines attack on a die roll of THREE or less.

Armor

Armor units may ""blitz"" and move into two enemy territories if the first territory is vacant.

Artillery

Artillery provide infantry support when attacking.

AA Guns

AA guns provide anti-air defense against air attacks on territories and strategic bombing. They can be used to launch rockets if rocket technology is developed. AA guns may not be destroyed, but they may be captured. AA guns may ONLY be moved by rail.

Air Units

During Returning Air Movement, all air units move again to return to their territory or carrier of origin. All air units may then change air bases during the Base Change sequence.

Fighters

Fighters may escort bombers and naval units, intercept air and naval units, and provide coastal and strategic air defense.

Bombers

Bombers may perform strategic bombing, intercept naval units, and provide coastal defense. Against air units, bombers’ attack and defense is reduced to a die roll of ONE.

Naval Fighters

Naval fighters have the same capabilities as normal fighters. In addition, up to two naval fighters may be based on carriers. However, when launching from carriers, their range is reduced to ONE during combat movement. Naval fighters cost less than fighters, but attack and defend at a lower die roll (because naval fighters represent a smaller number of aircraft). However, against naval units only, naval fighters attack at a die roll of 3 and defend at a die roll of 4. Each turn, a country may only purchase as many naval fighters as it has carriers (including newly purchased carriers).

Naval Units

All naval units may move to or change naval bases during the Base Change sequence.

Battleships

Battleships have a one shot ""shore bombardment"" attack and provide infantry support during amphibious assaults during the first round of combat. Also, battleships take 2 hits before being sunk and can be repaired if damaged.

Aircraft Carriers

Carriers may base up to 2 naval fighters.

Destroyers

Destroyers have a one shot ""shore bombardment"" attack and provide infantry support during amphibious assaults during the first round of combat. Also, destroyers provide anti-submarine defense.

Submarines

Attacking submarines have a 1st shot ""surprise attack"" against naval units, unless defending destroyers are present. Losses are applied immediately; lost units do not get to shoot back. Submarines cannot attack air units, however.

Transports

Transports have no attack capability. However, transports can move up to 2 sea zones and load up to 2 ground units for amphibious assaults and 3 ground units when transporting to friendly territories. Note that armor units count as 2 for loading purposes. For example, a transport may move a sea zone, pick up an armor unit and artillery unit, move another sea zone, then unload onto another friendly territory or island. An amphibious assault occurs when transports unload ground units into enemy territory. A transport’s movement ends when it unloads. Ground units may not move before loading into or after unloading from transports. During its turn, a transport may only load units from one territory and may only unload units into one territory. Transports may NOT load from or unload to an enemy-occupied sea zone, unless all enemy naval units have previously retreated/withdrawn from Naval Combat.

Develop Advanced Weapons

Each country may spend 5 IP to develop a maximum of one advanced weapon per turn. Units with advanced technology may not be purchased until the next player turn. Use flags, markers, or different units to represent advanced weapons.

Jet Fighters

Jet fighters cost 14 IP each. Jet fighters defend on rolls of 5 or less, but have a maximum movement of 1 only.

Rockets

Rocket launchers cost 4 IP each. Rocket launchers DO NOT provide anti-aircraft defense. Instead, they may launch rocket attacks against enemy Industrial Complexes. Rocket launchers may ONLY move by rail. Rockets have a range of TWO. Each rocket launcher may launch one rocket attack each turn. Multiple rocket launchers may occupy the same territory and may also attack the same target. Rockets score hits on rolls of 1, 2, or 3 and inflict that amount of damage on the enemy IC. Rocket die rolls of 4, 5, and 6 have No Effect. Like AA guns, rocket launchers cannot be destroyed. However, captured rocket launchers can only be used if the controlling player has rocket technology.

Super Submarines

Super submarines cost 10 IP each. A super submarine attacks on a die roll of 3 or less.

Heavy Armor

Heavy armor cost 7 IP each. Heavy armor attack on rolls of 4 or less and defend on rolls of 3 or less.

Heavy Artillery

Heavy artillery cost 6 IP each. Heavy artillery attack and defend on rolls of 3 or less.

Heavy Bombers

Heavy bombers cost 18 IP each. Heavy bombers attack and defend on rolls of 5 or less and roll 1 + 1 die roll of damage for strategic bombing.

UnitCostAttackDefendMoveHitsSpecial Capabilities
Infantry31211+1 attack with artillery support
US Marines41211+1 attack for amphibious assaults, move by rail
Armor53221Blitz move, move by rail
Heavy Armor74321
Artillery42211Infantry support, move by rail
Heavy Artillery63311
AA Gun5011Anti-air defense, may ONLY move by rail
Rocket Launcher401Rockets, move by rail
Fighter123421Air and naval interception, fighter escort, coastal and strategic air defense
Jet Fighter143511
Naval Fighter61 or 32 or 421Same as fighters plus: carrier basing, attack/defend with die roll of 3/4 vs. naval units
Bomber154431Naval interception, coastal defense, strategic bombing, attack and defend with a die roll of 1 against air units
Heavy Bomber185 or 15 or 131
Battleship244422Naval interception, one shot shore bombardment/infantry support, attack/defend with a die roll of 3 when damaged
Carrier181321Naval interception, base naval fighters
Destroyer123321Naval interception, anti-submarine warfare, one shot shore bombardment/infantry support with a die roll of 2
Submarine82221Naval interception, 1st shot surprise attack, cannot attack or defend against air units
Super Submarine103221
Transport80121Transport, amphibious assault

5

Action Sequence 3

Movement and Combat


This Action Sequence is composed of the following parts.

A..Naval Movement

B. Naval Combat

C. Ground Movement

D. Ground Combat

E. Returning Air Movement

These parts occur one after another in sequence. Rules follow on air unit capabilities, naval unit capabilities, ground unit capabilities, retreats, and combat losses. A detailed step-by-step Movement and Combat Action Sequence description is in Section 1 What to Do On a Turn.

Air Unit CAPABILITIES

During a country’s turn, the country’s air units may participate in either one, but only one, Naval or Ground Movement and Combat. Air units may escort naval units or bombers or move to attack naval units in a sea zone during Naval Movement, or they may escort bombers or move to attack a territory or strategically bomb an IC during Ground Movement. The country’s air units return to land during Returning Air Movement. During the base change sequence, air units may move again to change bases and may land in just-captured territory. Defending air units may be used multiple times for air interception, followed by defense of attacked naval units and territories. In addition, carrier-based naval fighters may be used for interception of naval units, followed by interception of air units, if both these types of units enter its sea zone.

Range

Jets have a movement of 1. Naval fighters and fighters have a movement of 2, except naval fighter’s movement is 1 when launched from carriers. Bombers have a movement of 3. During Returning Air Movement, jets have a movement of 1, naval fighters and fighters have a movement of 2, and bombers have a movement of 3.

One Sea Zone

Air units may enter only one sea zone when flying to attack and may enter only one sea zone when returning to land during Returning Air Movement. During the Base Change sequence, air units may enter up to two sea zones. The One Sea Zone restriction does not apply to bombers on strategic bombing attacks.

Aircraft Carriers

Aircraft carriers may only carry naval fighters of their own country. A naval fighter launched from a carrier may move only one sea zone or territory to attack. However, the carrier itself may move one or two sea zones before launching a fighter. A carrier must end its movement after launching a naval fighter. After combat, naval fighters MUST return to their original carrier if possible. Also, naval fighters may be assigned directly to carriers during the Place New Units Action Sequence.

Air Interception of Air Units

Defending fighters may intercept and AA guns may fire at moving air units LEAVING the airspace of the defender’s territory or sea zone. Defending fighters hit on a die roll of 2 or less (1 for naval fighters and 3 or less for jet fighters); the moving air units hit on a die roll of 1. One round of air interception combat occurs in the defender’s territory or sea zone.

Coastal Defense

During Naval Combat Resolution, defending air units (including bombers) may move to an adjacent sea zone to participate in the defense of friendly naval units being attacked, or where defending naval units are conducting combat against enemy naval units that have ended their movement in the defender’s sea zone (including during amphibious assaults). At the end of naval combat resolution, surviving coastal defense air units must return to their original land territory, if possible. Air units may provide coastal defense even if the land territory they are from is under attack. They may provide coastal defense, defend the land territory, or provide strategic air defense; they may not do more than one. At the end of combat resolution, if the territory a defending air unit flew from is captured, the air unit must fly to the CLOSEST friendly territory within its flight range. If no friendly territory is available, the defending air unit is eliminated.

Strategic Bombing

Bombers may perform strategic bombing against enemy ICs within their range. Strategic bombers may be intercepted by defending fighters and attacked by strategic air defense. Each bomber that survives may roll one die; this is the number of IP that the IC is reduced by during the owning country’s next turn. An IC MAY lose more IP than its printed value.

Fighter Escort

Fighters may accompany moving bombers or naval units as far as their range allows them and participate in air interception combat, but they may only enter one sea zone to the target territory or sea zone and one sea zone when returning from the target territory or sea zone. If intercepted, fighter escorts and bombers hit on a die roll of 1. Escorting fighters may escort either naval units OR bombers (not both) and may NOT also attack naval units or a territory during the same turn they escort bombers or naval units.

Strategic Air Defense

Directly before strategic bombers roll for damage on an IC, defending fighters and AA guns in the territory may defend against bomber (and their escorts, if any) with one round of combat. Defending AA guns have a first-shot attack against each attacking air unit. The strategic bombers and their escorts can only target defending fighters (and not any ground units). Defending fighters hit on a die roll of 2 or less (1 for naval fighters and 3 or less for jet fighters); strategic bombers and their escorts hit on a die roll of 1. Any surviving bombers may then bomb the IC.

NAVAL UNIT CAPABILITIES

Naval Combat Not Required

Naval units do not have to end movement, nor is combat required, when they enter a sea zone containing enemy naval units. Naval combat is at the discretion of the defending player to intercept moving naval units or the attacking player to attack the defender’s naval units.

Submarine 1st Shot Surprise Attack

In naval combat and naval interception combat, attacking submarines attack first every round. Defender naval losses are removed immediately; they do not get to shoot back. However, the presence of defending destroyers negates attacking submarines’ 1st shot attack.

Destroyer Anti-Submarine Warfare

Defending destroyers negate attacking submarines’ 1st shot attack. Also, air units may only attack or defend against submarines if a friendly de",1

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